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Aluminium
Group alloys
Conditions of aluminium
Principal alloys


Aluminium is a white metal, shining, light, ductile and malleable. It doesn’t change in the air and is abundant in nature. Aluminium is employed in a great number of industrial use.

It is enough resistant to corrosion and possess good electrical and thermal conductivity. Its lightness is its most important characteristic. When aluminium is exposed to the air, a thin layer, invisible is formed and protects it of a greater oxidation. This self-protection gives it a really high corrosion resistance that can be felt when it is in contact with a substance or under conditions which destroy this protective coating. Aluminium is not toxic, which has justified its fastest utilisation in food industry, as example the aluminium paper which is in direct contact with food. Finally, aluminium is easily machinable: it can be turned, milled, bored at the maximum speeds of the majority of the tools.


Designation of aluminium


The figures used to describe the aluminum alloys in conformity with the codes established by the American aluminium association. The first four figures of the sequence designate the alloys. The other codes (figures or letters) indicates the shape of the product and the type of heat treatment which it has received.


Group alloys


The first figure designate the chemical element which is the most important one in each alloy.
Group alloyThe main elementCharacteristics
1XXXAluminiumVery good corrosion resistance, large thermal and electric conductivity, high machinability.
2XXXCopperThe heat treatment gives it optimal properties, average corrosion resistance, great aeronautic uses.
3XXXMaganeseGenerally not manageable thermically, alloys largely used, good machinability.
4XXXSiliciumNo possibility of heat treatment, becomes dark grey when it is used with certain oxidants and gives it several architectural uses.
5XXXMagnesiumGood weldability, great corrosion resistant, does well in marine environment.
6XXXMagnesium et SiliciumHeat treatment possible, good formability and good corrosion resistance.
7XXXZincAlloys of great force, often used in structure that need tension.
8XXXOther elements-
9XXXUnused serie-


Conditions of aluminium
ConditionsUnder-conditionsCharacteristics
F-As fabricated, products without control on the final condition
O-Annealing
H-Hardened under tension. When an increased resistance is obtained by cold work
H1Hardened under tension
H2Hardened under tension and partially reheated
H3Hardened under tenson and stabilized
HX1A eight hard
HX2Quarter hard
HX4Half hard
HX6Three quarter hard
HX8Hard
HX9Really hard
H111Applies to the products having a degree hardening under tension less than for a control condition H11
H112Applies to the products whose condition comes from the facing process, without control of the hardening degree or thermal, but whose mechanical properties are limited
H113Applies to the products whose hardening under tension is less than for a controlled condition H31
H321Applies to the products whose hardening under tension is less than for a condition H32
H323-H343Applies to the products specially fabricated to offer an acceptable resistance of breaking by corrosion
T-Heat treatment
T1Cooled after a process facing at high temperature and aged naturally until strong stabilization
T2Annealing (molded products only)
T3Heat treatment of setting in solution, then cold work
T5Cooled after a high temperature facing process then aged artificially
T6Heat treatment of setting in solution, then aged artificially
T7Heat treatment of setting in solution, then stabilization
T8Heat treatement of setting in solution after cold work, then aged artificially
T9Heat treatment of setting in solution, cold work, artificial aging then cold work
T10Cooled after a high temperature facing process, artificially aged then cold work
Tx51Free of tension by stretching
Tx510Products that do not receive tension after stretching
Tx511Products which can receive a little tension after stretching to be in conformity with the standards of tolerance
Tx52Free of tension by compression


Principal alloys
Alloys
Characteristics
Applications
1100The purest commercial aluminium. Excellent corrosion resistance, workability and weldability, also good thermal conductivityDeep drawing and embossing, decorative and architectural applications, ventilation shaft, utensils and ornaments
3003Excellent workability, weldability, corrosion resistance. Used in stamping where a superior strength then alloy 1100 is necessary.Gasoline tanks, general manufacture, sheet-metal manufacture, ventilation.
5005Excellent workability, corrosion resistance. Use in application similar than 1100 and 3003 and also when anodization is necessary.Glaziery, architectural and decorative applications.
5052Good corrosion resistance, good workability, weldability. Easily fashioning and use in marine applications.Gasoline tanks for planes, ventilator blades.
5083Used in structures demanding great welding efficiency for a force of junction. Good corrosion resistance.Marine components, truck structures, tanks, structural towers.
5086Good corrosion resistance, good workability.Tanks, marine components and welded assemblies of all kind.
2024Workability and average corrosion resistance. Used in aeronautic applications and structures where good resistance is required (high ratio resistance/weight). Sometimes covered with a pure layer of aluminium (ALCLAD) for a better corrosion resistanceAeronautic applications.
6061Good workability, weldability, and corrosion resistance. High rigidity, used in structural applications.Boats, equipments for transport, all structural applications, mine wagons.
7075One of strongest aluminium alloys (highest resistance), mechanical properties higher than 2024 alloy. Available covered with a pure layer of aluminium (ALCLAD) for a better corrosion resistance.Aviation industry.